Full-Text Paper (PDF): Proto-Indo-European 'horse' from a Nostratic reconstruct Proto-Altaic *èkªá 'to paw, to hit with hooves' on the basis of the. This book is a comprehensive comparison of Proto-Indo-European, in all its stages of development and in all its aspects, with various other. New World, and Nostratic (7–9) and Eurasiatic (3, 4, 10), linking the major Methods and SI Text), records reconstructed proto-words for lan-.


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The term Nostratic was proposed in by the Danish linguist Holger Pedersen to encompass Indo-EuropeanUralic reconstructing proto nostratic, AltaicAfro-Asiaticand possibly other language families under one broad category.

Modern research on the Nostratic hypothesis began with the work of the Russian Vladislav M. Illich-Svitych, who made a detailed case in the mids for the relatedness of the four above-named groups, together with Kartvelian and Dravidian.

Nostratic hypothesis | proposed language family |

He also offered a detailed but still incomplete reconstruction of Proto-Nostratic. Copious references are given throughout to the relevant literature and the book ends with an English-Nostratic index.


Also for the first time, a sizable reconstructing proto nostratic of material has been included from Eskimo-Aleut and Chukchi-Kamchatkan.

This is often easier said than done. While attempts have been made to figure out which lexical items are less likely to be subject reconstructing proto nostratic borrowing including work done by Dolgopolsky, one of the authors of the Nostratic hypothesissuch lists have drawn heavy criticisms from other linguists.

And this is not the only problem with the comparative research into Nostratic hypothesis. Another potential problem concerns the kind of comparison done to evaluate possible cognates: A further problem is raised by the focus on grammatical morphemes: In reconstructing proto nostratic defense, the proponents of the Nostratic hypothesis reconstructing proto nostratic employ complex statistical methods for lexical comparisons of multiple languages cf.


Oswalt reconstructing proto nostratic extend their work to conduct morphological and even syntactic comparisons. And indeed it reconstructing proto nostratic that the future of Nostratic linguistics lies in developing mathematical methods for sifting through vast amounts of data and figuring out what portions of those data are due to relatedness and which are due to borrowing or even to pure chance.

Salmons and Reconstructing proto nostratic D. Campbell, Lyle Nostratic: Ouchtata retouch is also a characteristic of the Late Ahmarian Upper Palaeolithic culture of the Levant and may not indicate African influence.

Phonology[ edit ] The phonemes tabulated below are commonly reconstructed for the Proto-Nostratic language Kaiser and Shevoroshkin Allan Reconstructing proto nostraticwho relies more heavily on Afroasiatic and Dravidian than on Uralic, as do members of the "Moscow School", reconstructs a different vowel system, with three pairs of vowels represented as: In the first three pairs of vowels, Bomhard is attempting to specify the subphonemic variation involved, inasmuch as that variation led to some of the vowel gradation ablaut and vowel harmony patterning found in various daughter languages.


Consonants[ edit ] The reconstructed consonants of Nostratic are shown in the table below. Every distinction is supposed to be contrastive by the Nostraticists who reconstruct them.

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