Low Earth Orbit is used for things that we want to visit often with the Space Shuttle, like the Hubble Space Telescope and the International Space Station. This is. Definition: Technically, objects in low-Earth orbit are at an altitude of between to 2, km (99 to mi) above the Earth's surface. Details and basic information about the Low Earth Orbit, LEO used for various forms of satellites and their applications.


Author: Maud Kovacek
Country: Ukraine
Language: English
Genre: Education
Published: 17 April 2016
Pages: 890
PDF File Size: 6.93 Mb
ePub File Size: 26.97 Mb
ISBN: 652-4-46695-721-5
Downloads: 90726
Price: Free
Uploader: Maud Kovacek

Download Now

What exactly is the purpose of these large LEO constellations? Why are so many satellites needed? How are LEO satellites different from traditional satellites? Which frequency bands will these constellations operate on?

Who are the current major players in low earth orbit space?


The LEO industry is expected to skyrocket in the near future with many new groundbreaking opportunities arising as new technologies are developed.

The altitude also allows for rapid orbital periods a little over one hour to two hours longwhich allows them to be able to view the same region on the surface multiple times low earth orbit a single day. In short, LEO is the simplest, cheapest and safest location for the deployment of satellites, space stations, low earth orbit crewed space missions.

What is Low Earth Orbit? - Universe Today

Issues with Space Debris: Because of its popularity as a destinations for satellites and space missions, and with increases in space launches over the past low earth orbit decades, LEO is also becoming increasingly congested with space debris.

This takes the form of discarded rocket stages, non-functioning satellites, and debris created by collisions between large pieces of debris.


The existence of this debris field in LEO has led to growing concern in recent years, since collisions at high-velocities can be catastrophic for space missions.

However, as a result of the popularity of this type low earth orbit satellite, studies reveal that the Low earth orbit environment is getting congested with space debris.

The lower altitude means higher velocities are required to balance the earth's gravitational field. The lower orbit means the satellite and user are closer together and therefore path losses a less than for other orbits such as GEO The round trip time, RTT for the radio signals is considerably less than that experienced by geostationary orbit satellites.

So what happens if we want a satellite to spend all of its time low earth orbit just one part of the Earth? For instance, a weather satellite wouldn't be very effective for us in North America if it didn't have a long dwell time over us.

Also, a communications satellite wouldn't work very well for us in North American if it spent most of its time over Africa or Asia.

There are two ways to accomplish low earth orbit. One solution is to put a satellite in a highly elliptical orbit and the other is to place the satellite in a geosynchronous orbit.

Inside Frequency Control

Highly Elliptical Orbits Remember Kepler's second law: Perigee is the closest point and apogee is the farthest for Low earth orbit - for the Sun we say aphelion and perihelion. Since low earth orbit requires less energy to place a satellite into a LEO, and a satellite there needs less powerful amplifiers for successful transmission, LEO is used for many communication applications, such as the Iridium phone system.

Some communication satellites use much higher geostationary orbitsand move at the same angular velocity as the Earth as to appear stationary above one location on the planet.

Disadvantages[ edit ] Satellites in LEO have a small momentary field of viewonly able to observe and communicate with a fraction of the Earth at a time, meaning a network or " constellation " of satellites is required to in order to provide continuous coverage. Low earth orbit non-inclined orbit with respect to the equator.

Types of Orbits

An orbit whose inclination with respect to the equatorial plane is nearly zero. This orbit allows for rapid revisit times for a low earth orbit orbiting spacecraft of near equatorial ground sites.

Eccentricity classifications[ edit ] There are two types of orbits: Circular and elliptical orbits are closed. Parabolic and hyperbolic orbits are open.

Radial orbits can be either open or closed.

Related Posts: