with the entry into force of the Urban Lease Law7 and the. New Urban .. Novo Regime do Arrendamento Urbano (NRAU), Lei nº 6/ pelo Decreto-Lei n.º B/90, de 15 de Outubro ou do Novo Regime de Arrendamento urbano (NRAu), aprovado pela Lei n.º 6/, de 27 de Fevereiro. º 6/, de 27 de fevereiro. A Nova Lei do Arrendamento Urbano entrou em vigor em 12 de Novembro de Esta ferramenta permite simular:» o cálculo.


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Birchler Received Mar 27; Accepted Apr Its origin was traced to nonhomologous chromosome 5A of wheat and 1Ht of Elymus; four chromatin segments were derived from chromosome 1Ht and five chromatin segments including the centromere from 5A.

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In this study, our objective was to determine the mechanism of origin of chromosome z5A, whether by nonhomologous recombination or by multiple translocation events. Different crossing schemes were used to recover lei 6 2006 nrau containing various Elymus chromatin segments of the z5A chromosome.

In addition, one z5AL telocentric chromosome lei 6 2006 nrau three z5AL isochromosomes were recovered. The dissection of the Elymus segments into different stocks allowed us to determine the chromosomal origin of the different chromosome fragments on the basis of the order of the RFLP markers employed and suggested that the zebra chromosome originated from nonhomologous recombination.

We present a model of possible mechanism s of chromosome evolution and step changes in chromosome number applicable to a wide range of organisms. CLASSICAL phenomena of changes in multiple sets of basic chromosome number by polyploidy and step changes in basic chromosome number through aneuploidy have been documented for over a century.

Stebbins provided the first synthesis of the enormous literature on chromosome variation and evolution in plants.

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However, such studies were limited to groups of species that lei 6 2006 nrau be hybridized and their meiotic behavior analyzed. With the dawn of the genomics era, comparative genomics and fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH are providing new insights into mechanisms of chromosome evolution, including changes in size, morphology, and number at the levels of tribes, families, or higher hierarchies sharing and spanning tens or even hundreds of million years of co-evolutionary history.

Typically, one or more rounds of lei 6 2006 nrau duplications, followed by diploidization and step changes in basic chromosome numbers, have been hypothesized.


In grasses, Salse et al. However, there have been only a few experimental demonstrations of step changes in basic chromosome number reviewed in Schubert In wheat, there is a long history of interspecific hybridization and experimental introgression aimed at transferring useful genes from alien species into wheat.

There is also a large body of literature on chromosome behavior and structural aberrations in interspecific hybrids. lei 6 2006 nrau

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One particularly useful aspect of the wheat genetic system is buffering of the genome due to polyploidy that allows study of chromosome structure and behavior in isolation and over a large number of generations.

Some key aspects of these studies were summarized by Gill The original hybrid could only be made using E. All lei 6 2006 nrau and partially fertile alloplasmic derivatives carried chromosomes 1Ht or 1St or their short arms as telocentrics.

Twelve simple or complex translocations involving 1St or lei 6 2006 nrau with other E. Among them, an alloplasmic wheat line carrying a zebra chromosome designated as z5A—a complex translocation involving 1HtS and wheat chromosome 5A that replaced wheat chromosome 5A—was recovered Jiang and Gill Chromosome z5A gave a striped appearance upon genomic in situ hybridization GISH and was made up of four segments from E.

This line was fully fertile and flowered 10 days earlier than the wheat recurrent parent.

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In this article, our objective was to determine the mechanism of origin of chromosome z5A, lei 6 2006 nrau by nonhomologous lei 6 2006 nrau or by multiple translocation events.

By separating and genetically isolating the four E. A model is presented and the significance of this phenomenon is discussed in relation to chromosome evolution and repatterning forming new chromosomes and also leading to step changes in basic chromosome number in diverse organisms.

An alloplasmic wheat line, TA, carrying the zebra chromosome z5A pair substituting for chromosome 5A of wheat in addition to 20 pairs of wheat chromosomes, was isolated from a derivative of an E. These observations suggested that the E. Alloplasmic euploid wheat plants in E.


The short arm of chromosome 1Ht has the fertility restoration gene, Rf-Ht1. The alloplasmic stock TA is vigorous and fully fertile, indicating that the 1Ht segments present in chromosome z5A have the Rf-Ht1 gene.


The long arm of chromosome 5A has lei 6 2006 nrau major domestication gene Q, which controls the free-threshing character and square spike morphology Huskins ; Unrau et al. TA has a square head and is free threshing, indicating that the chromosome 5A segment containing the Q gene is present in z5A.

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