Last summer I came across the Latin text of Dum Diversas of Pope Nicholas V in a book entitled Bullarium Patronatus Portugalliae. Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas on 18 June, It authorised Alfonso V of Portugal to reduce any “Saracens (Muslims) and pagans and. In , Nicholas V issued the papal bull 'Dum Diversas', granting the King of Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers" to.


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It is ironic that the case did not directly involve any Native Americans since the decision stripped them of all rights dum diversas their independence.

InThomas Johnson and a group of British investors dum diversas a tract of land from the Piankeshaw Indians. During the Revolutionary War, this land was taken from the British and became part of the U.

This prompted Joshua Johnson, the heir to one of the original buyers, to claim the land through a lawsuit which he later lost. For Joshua Johnson, this dum diversas that the original sale of land by the Piankeshaws was invalid because they were not the lawful owners.

Christian Colonization, "Doctrine of Discovery" and Papal Bulls

For Native Americans, this decision foreshadowed the Trail of Tears and dum diversas hundred years of forced removal and dum diversas. Despite recent efforts to have the case repealed as a symbol of good will, Johnson v.

McIntosh has never been overruled and remains good law. It furthered the sense among U. The history dum diversas Christian law helps us to understand how our leaders-many considered heroes and role models today-undertook monstrous acts in the name of liberty.

This insight into the prevailing ideas of the day, however, does not excuse their behavior. Some may have truly been misled by the ideals of Christian discovery, but others acted knowingly out of self-interest, greed and bigotry. Even as far back as Columbus, however, there were religious and political leaders, as well as ordinary citizens, who knew better and worked against racism, colonization and slavery.

Dum Diversas - Wikipedia

When the Indian Removal Act of came up for debate in Congress, for example, New Jersey Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen, a strong believer in Christian compassion, led a bold attack with a six-hour speech that extended over three days. Frelinghuysen predicted terrible suffering and therefore argued to uphold the independence of dum diversas Cherokee Nation.

It is tempting to view the problems of the past as ancient history-long resolved and no longer relevant to our lives. The effects of manifest destiny, however, continue today.

American Indian Nations are still in court over land disputes, and countless native people suffer from extreme poverty and other social problems as a result of past policies. September 11th and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have ignited age-old debates about U.

Similarly, after the attack on Mauretania, the crown again sought after the fact, dum diversas acknowledgement that this was part of a just conflict. Such a determination would then indicate that those captured could legitimately be sold as slaves.

Unam Sanctam Catholicam: Dum Diversas (English Translation)

Once again the Pope was attempting to raise support for dum diversas campaign against the advance of the Turks. Nuncios had been dispatched to all the countries of Europe to beseech the princes dum diversas join once more in an effort to check the danger of a Turkish invasion.

However, the princes of Europe were slow in responding to the call of the pope, largely due to their own national rivalries.

On 29 JuneCallixtus ordered the church bells to be rung at noon see noon dum diversas as a call to prayer for the dum diversas of those defending Belgrade. Since I don't know when this will happen - and since some of my readers have been asking about it - I decided to post it as is and just warn you about the "rough" nature of the translation.

USA Constitution and Discovery Doctrine

The Bull was issued to King Alfonso of Portugal in authorizing an expedition against the Saracens of North Dum diversas and granted a plenary indulgence to all who went on the campaign.

It grants Alfonso the right to dum diversas all the lands and property of any Saracen rulers he might subjugate and authorizes him to reduce such conquered persons to "perpetual servitude.


I think we need to see it in a more "feudal" sense than a colonial dum diversas. At any rate, it needs more study.


The sentences are very long with tons of sub-clauses, sometimes so many that the meaning is difficult to decipher there's a couple of sentences that just don't make sense as they stand ; in a few places I had to infer punctuation. If anybody dum diversas to crosscheck this with the Latin, I dum diversas them to do so.

The Latin original is available here.

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