IMPERIALISM, COLONIALISM, AND DECOLONIZATIONThe colonial expansion of European states into the Americas, Asia, Africa, and the Pacific, followed by. Purpose: to Promote Indigenous Warrior Culture, Fighting Spirit,. & Resistance Movement. Contact: [email protected] Colonization and. Decolonization. (1) Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.
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The mid-twentieth century witnessed a more rapid and complete wave of decolonization worldwide.
World History, Colonization and De-colonization
The types of colonies in existence in each period colonization and decolonization the nature of the decolonization process varied greatly across the two periods Fieldhouse ; Strang a. The first wave of decolonization began with the independence of Britain's thirteen continental colonies as the United States of America.
The French Revolution touched off colonization and decolonization slave uprising that led ultimately to the independence of the French colony of Saint Domingue as Haiti. While the first period of decolonization was limited to the Americas, twentieth-century decolonization was global in scope.
Between the world wars, some of Britain's settler colonies and a number of loosely held protectorates became fully sovereign.
The pace of change rapidly accelerated during the s, which saw the decolonization of nearly all of Africa. By the s, nearly all Western colonies had become independent or had been fully incorporated into sovereign states.
One fundamental difference between the two eras of decolonization has colonization and decolonization do with who sought independence.
Advocacy for Oromia
Early American decolonizations were creole revolutions, as the descendants of European settlers sought political autonomy from the "mother country.
Slave revolt in Haiti provided the sole exception, to the horror of creole nationalists as well as loyalists elsewhere. By contrast, twentieth-century decolonization was rooted in indigenous rather than creole colonization and decolonization for independence, as decolonization came to mean freedom from racially alien rule.
After World War II colonization and decolonization, settler minorities opposed decolonization, since national independence spelled an end to their privileged political, economic, and social position. Only in South Africa did a racialist minority regime survive decolonization.
Imperialism, Colonialism, and Decolonization |
The first and second waves of decolonization also differed importantly in the amount of violence involved.
Early decolonization in the Americas was won colonization and decolonization military combat between settler and imperial forces. Wars for independence raged in Britain's thirteen continental colonies, in Spanish Central and South America, and in Haiti.
Only in Portuguese Brazil was independence achieved without a fight, largely because Brazil was several times richer and more populous than Portugal.
During the twentieth century, colonization and decolonization wars for independence were fought in Indochina, Indonesia, Algeria, and Angola. But these were the exceptions to the rule.
Most colonies became independent with little or no organized violence between the imperial state and colonial nationalists. In much of Africa, imperial powers virtually abandoned colonies at the first sign of popular opposition to the colonial regime.
By the mids, decolonization had become a rather routine activity for many imperial powers, often achieved through institutionalized expressions of popular will such as plebiscites. A variety of arguments have been developed about factors contributing to decolonization. While most treatments have dealt with a single dependency or empire, there have been a number of efforts to develop explicitly comparative analyses see Albertini ; Anderson ; Bergesen and Schoenberg ; Boswell ; Emerson ; Grimal ; Lang ; Smith ; Strang Decolonization is often seen as the result of structural change in the dependency itself.
Settler colonies are thought to undergo a natural process of maturation, well expressed in the physiocratic maxim that colonies are like fruit that fall colonization and decolonization the tree when they are ripe.