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Spline[ edit ] Splines are a particular form of curve generated by specific mathematical equations.


The user can select as many vertices as they wish, and AutoCAD will generate a spline curve that incorporates all these points. Splines are generally used for cosmetic purposes, as their mathematical complexity makes them hard to define from a technical design perspective.

Shortcut "spl" Ellipse[ edit ] Basically an oval.


Similar to a circle, except ellipses require a radius to be defined for both their vertical and horizontal components. Shortcut "el" Hatch[ edit ] Hatches are area fills. They can be made up of autocad learning books in urdu solid colour, a gradient in later versions of AutoCAD or more usually a specific pattern.

Hatches can be applied to a particular object such as a looped polyline, or any enclosed area.

They can be and usually should be defined as being "associative" which means that if the area in which they are contained is adjusted, the hatching will update automatically. Text[ edit ] Inserts a text string into the drawing.

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AutoCAD uses two forms of text entry, single line and multiline. Basic Modifying Tools[ edit ] Erase[ edit ] Erases the selected object from the drawing.

Can also be activated by pressing the delete key on the keyboard. Shortcut "e" not very helpful because there is delete key we also erases the objects by selected objects for example. The user defines two points and the object is copied using these two positions as base points.

For example, the user could selectas the first point andas the second point. This would place the copy drawing units above the first. Points can either be entered using the keyboard or by clicking anywhere in the drawing.

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The user defines two points, along which autocad generates a "line of reflection" and autocad learning books in urdu reflected object is generated across this line with all components reversed. The user is then asked if they want to keep or delete the original.


One problem with the mirror command autocad learning books in urdu that if any text is included in the mirroring operation, it too is reversed making it unreadable and ridiculous. Shortcut "mi" Offset[ edit ] An offset is like a copy but is more precise and must be used for certain situations as the result is likely to be slightly bigger or smaller than the original.

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For example, consider a line that represents the edge of a road. This line contains several curved segments, and you would like to make a copy of this line to represent the opposite side of the road.

A direct copy won't work, because the radius of the inside of a curve is much tighter than on the outside. The offset command allows you to simply define how far autocad learning books in urdu and on which side you would like the copy to be made, and AutoCAD will take it from there.

Shortcut "o" Array[ edit ] An array is a quick way of doing a lot of copying, as long as all the copies are arranged in a simplistic way. There are two types of array; polar and grid. For a polar array, Autocad asks the user how many copies they want to make, and requests a centre point and a number of autocad learning books in urdu to fill.

Autocad then sweeps round this centre point making copies of the selected object in a circular pattern.

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Autocad learning books in urdu a grid array, the user selectes how many rows and columns they require, as well as the spacings between them and Autocad instantly duplicates the selected object s as many times as necessary.

Shortcut "ar" Move[ edit ] Works exactly the same as the sukc u mada bappy copy command except the original is deleted. Shortcut "m" Rotate[ edit ] The user selects the object s to be rotated, a centre point, and defines the number of degrees to revolve through.

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